I don't think there is anything you can do to fix it. The cleaner probably chemically reacted with the laminate and "bleached" the color out.
You may need to replace the counter. Laminate counters aren't too expensive. It might be a blessing in disguise. You could change out the entire countertop with tile or new laminate.
I've never tried this, but maybe you could drip some fabric stain in roughly the same color as the laminate (e.g. RIT found in the supermarket) on the spots of the laminate, let it sit for a while and wipe it off. Hopefully, the stain may leach into the laminate and if you gradually do it, you might be able to get it back to the original color. Just be careful or you might get dark spots on unaffected areas if you drip the fabric stain in the wrong spot or even dark rings around the white spot from this approach.