Presumably these were all black wires (except the grounds). You don't mention the white wires; they were probably all connected together and shoved into the back of the box.
My guess is that you have a circuit where power comes into the box from the main panel, and then goes 2 places. One goes through the switch and up to the light it controls. The other goes to the outlets in the room that the clock radio, lamps, etc. are plugged into. This one is unswitched, it is supposed to be always powered.
The original electrician used a shortcut; since the switch has two connectedg terminals (the backstab one and the screw on the side), he used that as a junction point. [Modern practice would be to use a short pigtail wire to the switch, and then connect that, the wire to the unswitched outlets, and the incoming power wire all together with a wire nut.]
What you have likely done is accidentally switched a couple of these wires. It's fairly easy to do, especially as your new switch may not have connections at the same place as the old one.
To fix this, you can try just switching the wires around. (There's only about 3 or so possibilities to try.) Or the proper way to do this is to actually identify the wires. Start by looking at the cables that come into the box. There are probably 3:
- the incoming power cable.
- a cable going thru the switch and out to the light.
- a cable (unswitched) going out to the outlets in the room.
Identifying the incoming power should be easy -- disconnect all the wires, and it's the one where the black & white wires light up your tester. Once you've identified that, it should be easy to identify the others -- connect them one at a time to the power wire, and see what then becomes powered.
Note -- this assumes all the wires on your switch were black. If not, don't do this -- you have a different circuit. Post here again, giving more details about the cables coming into the box, and the colors of the wires involved.