When compared with traditional HVAC systems that use a furnace for heat and an air conditioner for cooling, a heat pump can offer significant energy savings that result in lower household bills. They also could be called a heat exchanger because that’s effectively how a heat pump conditions a space.
Using a refrigerant and a compressor, the technology can extract heat from outside—even when it feels quite cool—and pump that warmth into your home. In summer, it can be switched over to provide effective air conditioning. Heat pumps can also help reduce humidity. Other models are specifically designed for household hot water or for pool heating.
Dual fuel systems, combining an electric heat pump and gas furnace, also promise high energy efficiency but are highly complex and expensive. This in-depth guide details key features of heat pumps, including types, capacity, and efficiency ratings, and includes some of the best heat pump options for home use.
- BEST OVERALL: Pioneer Wall Mount Ductless Mini Split Heat Pump
- BEST BUDGET: Klimaire Ductless Mini-Split Heat Pump
- BEST WIFI COMPATIBLE: MRCOOL DIY 24k BTU 20 SEER Ductless Heat Pump
- BEST FOR POOLS: Hayward 95,000 BTU Pool Heat Pump
- MOST EFFICIENT: Cooper & Hunter Ductless Mini Split AC/Heating System
- ALSO CONSIDER: Senville LETO Series Air Conditioner Heat Pump
Types of Heat Pumps
Heat pumps can be divided into three main types: air source, split-ductless, and geothermal. While all types use the same basic principle of heat exchange to warm or cool a house, understanding their different strengths helps narrow the choices for the best heat pump for a particular home.
Air source heat pumps sit outside the home and use an internal ducting system much like other HVAC systems that provide hot or cool air inside. When switching from an electric or gas furnace to a heat pump, parts of the existing installation can often be used.
An air-source heat pump also can provide hot water, but it’s important to note that it is a separate system. An air-source hot water heat pump is not the same as a heating and cooling heat pump, so two systems are needed if both functions are wanted. They are very effective in mild and warm areas, but additional heating may be required where the temperature regularly drops below 25 degrees Fahrenheit.
Like air source heat pumps, split-ductless systems (also called mini-splits) have a condenser unit outside paired with a wall-mounted air handler that has a fan inside similar to air conditioners. Usually, the latter is fitted high up near the ceiling. A handheld remote control is used to change settings.
The ducting that causes some heat loss in other systems is not necessary, so installation is generally more straightforward. The ductless feature makes it popular for house additions when a house has been extended and the owners don’t want to modify the current HVAC system. The amount of square footage it can condition depends on the unit used, and several units might be necessary to cover an entire house.
The temperature underground remains constant below about 6 feet deep, regardless of the season. A geothermal heat pump takes advantage of this consistent warmth. Liquid-filled pipes—called a “loop”—are buried underground either horizontally or vertically. They pick up the underground temperature that is then pumped around the house.
Also called ground source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps can be used in areas where other systems are less effective in winter. However, installation costs are high, and the ground space needed makes them unsuitable for smaller properties.
What to Consider When Choosing the Best Heat Pump
There are more details to consider beyond the different types of heat pumps. The following includes some of the most important heat pump features that are key to maximizing both performance and energy savings in different situations.
When looking at the main benefits of the best heat pump systems, the main purpose usually is serving as an energy-efficient alternative to furnace and air conditioner combinations for a home. However, there are other areas where heat pumps can provide a cost-effective solution. Fitting a split system to an extension may be less expensive and easier than stretching an existing HVAC beyond its intended specification.
If there is space, geothermal heat pumps are a great way to provide hot water. Small air source heat pumps also can provide effective heating for outdoor pools. Although they are less efficient when it’s cold, it’s unlikely that an outdoor pool would be used then anyway.
Whether comparing a heat pump with other HVAC or looking at a more modest installation, both the heating and cooling potential of single units or expanded systems will be important. The standard measurement unit of heat is the British thermal unit (BTU). The generally accepted standard is that for both comfortable warmth in winter and sufficient cool air in summer, a system should provide 20 BTUs per square foot per hour.
For example, a 500-square-foot space with 8-foot ceilings needs a heat pump rated for 10,000 BTUs. Not all manufacturers provide BTU information, some preferring to use tons to describe a heat pump’s output capacity. A ton is equal to 12,000 BTUs per hour.
A frequent consideration is whether a heat pump can be effectively combined with other heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. While a split-ductless heat pump is a good way to add heating and ventilation when a living space is expanded, the advice of an HVAC expert may be needed for a proper assessment of compatibility among systems.
However, there are more advanced hybrid systems that integrate traditional furnace-based HVAC with an electric heat pump. They use the heat pump when the outside air is warm enough to make sense economically and switch over to the furnace when the temperature drops. Installation is more complex, but the resulting fuel savings can make it worthwhile.
With home energy costs continually rising, any way to manage consumption and save money is helpful. A heat pump’s actual heating efficiency is rated in several ways, and it varies depending on the type. With all systems, higher numbers are better, though the best heat pumps in terms of energy efficiency also tend to cost more.
Most air source and split-ductless models provide two ratings. For heating, this is a Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF). There is a minimum United States federal standard of 7.7 HSPF, but the American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE) recommends 8.5 or greater. For cooling, the Seasonal Energy Efficiency Rating (SEER) is used. Again, the federal minimum is 14 SEER, though ACEEE recommends 15 or more.
Geothermal heat pump efficiency is rated by the Coefficient of Performance (COP) for heating and Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) for cooling. Respective minimums are 3.1 for COP and 17.1 for EER.
The amount of noise that a heat pump generates varies based on the type of heat pump. Air source and split-ductless heat pumps both have an outdoor fan and compressor. While not aggressively loud like a chainsaw, they can create a constant background hum. The pitch will often rise as the energy demand increases.
Many air source or split-ductless units are under 60 decibels, which is much like normal conversation. However, some exceed 70 decibels, which is compared to traffic noise or a vacuum cleaner. As they’re frequently sited on or near an outside wall, the noise level likely has a significant impact on where the unit is positioned. The indoor fan for split-ductless heat pumps is usually very quiet and unlikely to cause noise problems, even in bedrooms.
Geothermal heat pumps have no external fan. As a result, many are almost silent and frequently described as “whisper quiet.”
Installation is a very important consideration because professional installation is strongly recommended with many heat pumps.
A split-ductless heat pump is the easiest type to install, but even with good DIY skills, it will take time and patience. As a rough guide, contractors often work in pairs and would expect installation to take around 5 hours.
Air source heat pumps for pool heating can be self-installed if you have the required electrical knowledge. Household systems are far more complex, typically requiring a couple of days to install. Unless you have a wealth of experience, it’s a job that’s probably best left to professionals. Several manufacturers warn that their equipment should only be installed by qualified technicians.
That’s also true with geothermal heat pumps. An initial survey is conducted to see if the site is suitable, then there’s substantial groundwork or drilling to install the loop. They are often recommended as an efficient solution for new builds and large, open plots. Installation in well-developed urban areas can be challenging.
Our Top Picks
Now that you know more about the types of heat pumps and their various features, it can be easier to accurately assess the best heat pump for the kind of installation you have in mind. To help with the search, we’ve gathered the best heat pump brands in a variety of categories. They represent excellent performance and value.
Pioneer is one of the top names in split-ductless heat pumps, and models in this range offer a choice of 12,000, 18,000, or 24,000 BTUs. The SEER rating is 19, with a class-leading 10 HSPF. The air handler is very quiet, producing just 30 to 43 decibels.
The clever “Follow Me” feature takes feedback from a sensor in the remote control and adjusts to provide heat or cooling in that location rather than where the air handler is positioned. The well-thought-out installation kit includes both electrical wiring and copper pipe, and there’s free technical support, too.
Quality is assured by independent testing and certification to Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) standards. Given the high performance, it’s also a remarkably good value.
- 18,000 BTUs
- SEER rating of 19 and 10 HSPF
- Quiet functionality
- Installation kit included
- Smart-home connectivity sold separately
The 12,000-BTU Klimaire is designed for space up to 550 square feet. In addition to smaller spaces, it’s an ideal cost-effective solution to add to an existing HVAC system for a new extension. The SEER rating is 19 with 9 HSPF, and the air handler runs as low as 25 decibels, so it won’t disturb sleep.
Although very competitively priced, the AHRI-certified Klimaire is not short on features. A built-in compressor heater will allow it to operate when the outdoor temperature is as low as 5 degrees Fahrenheit. A “Home Away” setting ensures the room maintains a constant 46 degrees while the house is unattended.
- SEER rating of 19 and 9 HSPF
- Heats up to 550 square feet.
- Built-in compressor heater
- Installation kit included
- Smaller BTU output
- Mounting brackets not included
MRCOOL produces a high-value range of split-ductless heat pumps. This powerful model is rated for 24,000-BTU output. Installation is simplified with a comprehensive kit that includes 25 feet of cable, connectors, and a charged air handler. The fan runs at just 31 to 45 decibels, depending on speed. In addition to warmth, it can provide cooling down to 5 degrees Fahrenheit.
The standout feature of this model is it offers Wi-Fi control in addition to the standard remote. The free app provided allows monitoring and controlling of heat or cooling via smartphone. It also integrates with both Alexa and Google Assistant smart-home systems. The unit also will remember previous settings and restart after a power outage.
- 24,000-BTU output
- Wi-Fi control and free app included
- Programmable settings
- Installation manual and hardware included
Pool pump performance is described using Coefficient of Performance (COP) rather than SEER and HSPF. The use of titanium in the heat exchanger maximizes transfer efficiency, and this 95,000-BTU Hayward is rated at 5.7, which is well above the federal recommended minimum of 3.1.
Despite its considerable output, an acoustic compressor cover keeps noise levels down to around 50 decibels, so it doesn’t disturb outside spaces. Tough UV-treated polypropylene is used for the main body, with rust-resistant stainless steel fittings. The water flow rate is necessary for matching with an appropriate water pump, and this one has a versatile range of 30 to 75 gallons per minute. A digital control panel on the front of the unit provides for quick and easy operation.
- 95,000-BTU output
- Acoustic compressor
- UV-treated polypropylene and rustproof stainless steel construction
- Built-in digital control panel
- May require professional installation
- Made for in-ground pools only
When judging heat pump efficiency, two figures are used: the SEER and HSPF ratings. The 12,000-BTU Cooper & Hunter ductless mini-split system is the only model found that reaches the standards of the top pick on this list, with a SEER of 19 and an HSPF of 9.5. Both are well in excess of federal recommendations, and pricing is competitive, too.
At 60 decibels, it isn’t the quietest ductless mini-split system, but neither is it excessive. It is both AHRI certified and ETL listed. A cold catalyst filter helps remove dust particles and absorbs harmful airborne benzene and ammonia. The unit is also WiFi-ready (an additional USB adapter is required). While everything is provided for DIY fitting, professional installation is required.
- Ductless mini-split system
- SEER rating of 19 and 9.5 HSPF
- AHRI and ETL listed
- Cold catalyst filter included
- Comparably limited 12,000-BTU output
- Louder at 60 decibels
- Professional installation recommended
At 12,000 BTU, this Senville is intended for the kind of extra spaces created when a bedroom is added above a garage, or a small guesthouse is built in the yard. It will often be far more economical than extending existing HVAC. With a SEER rating of 19 and 9.5 HSPF, it delivers performance equal to or better than anything in its class. At 28 decibels, it’s comfortably quiet, too.
Though a full kit is included, and technical support is offered, professional installation is required to validate the warranty. Nevertheless, the competitive purchase price will go a long way toward compensating for these costs. Those who need a heat pump for a larger area might consider one of Senville’s other high-efficiency models from the same range.
- Full kit included
- SEER rating of 19 and HSPF of 9.5
- Quiet functionality
- Comparably limited BTU output
- Requires professional installation
Selected for its high BTU output of 18,000, SEER rating of 19, HSPF of 10, and a full installation kit included, the Pioneer pick is our top choice for the best heat pump. Made to be quiet and effective in spaces up to 650 square feet, this lightweight heat pump has a “Follow Me” feature to keep your space at an ideal temperature.
Alternatively, the Klimaire option comes with a smaller price tag and is convenient for those with smaller spaces of up to 550 square feet. Made with a built-in compressor heater, this heat pump comes with a full installation kit included and is efficient with a SEER rating of 19 and HSPF of 9.
How We Chose the Best Heat Pumps
The right heat pump can help keep your home warm in the colder months. Selecting the best ones depended upon easy-to-use features, high efficiency ratings, effectiveness in a variety of spaces, and easy installation.
Most importantly, the above picks have heat outputs of 12,000 to 24,000 BTUs for effective heating. The above list also prioritizes efficiency with some options boasting a SEER rating of 19 and an HSPF of 10.
These picks include programmable settings to ensure your heat is distributed where you need it. For example, select options include built-in “Home Away” and “Follow Me” features.
Some of these models come with remotes or Wi-Fi compatibility for easy control, and some are compatible with Alexa and Google Assistant. Several of these top picks also operate at low decibels for quiet use and can be installed without professional help.
Be advised that some of these units do not come with smart-home connectivity or require professional installation before use.
FAQs About Heat Pumps
Now that you’ve had the opportunity to read about some of the key features and consider some of the best heat pumps on the market, you may have lingering questions. It’s a complex area, so it would be understandable if a few questions remained. The following answers to some of the most common queries may help.
Q. What are heat pumps?
A heat pump is a low-energy way of providing both heating and cooling. They can be used for the whole house or a single room and to provide hot water or heat your pool.
Q. Do heat pumps use a lot of electricity?
Heat pumps typically output three to four times more energy than they consume, so they use electricity very efficiently. As with any heating or cooling system, heat pumps need proper management to maximize savings.
Q. How do I choose the best heat pump for my home?
To choose the best heat pump, investigate how efficiently it heats and cools a given space, plus the cost and the ease of installation. These and other key considerations are covered in detail above.
Q. Should I turn off my heat pump in extreme cold?
Air source and split-ductless heat pumps can be damaged if they freeze, but many have internal heaters to prevent this. It’s important to check. Properly installed geothermal heat pumps should not be affected because they are deep enough that the cold does not reach them.
Q. How long do heat pumps last?
Heat pump longevity is based on the type. Air source and split-ductless last an average of 15 years, though it is not uncommon for them to last more than 20 years. The indoor unit of a geothermal heat pump can be expected to last 25 years or more, with 50 years usually quoted for the underground loop.
Q. What is the best heat pump brand?
While selecting the best heat pump should be based more on specification than brand, Daikin, Goodman, and Pioneer all perform consistently well in independent satisfaction surveys.
Q. What is the most efficient heat pump on the market?
Two are difficult to separate. The top pick, the Pioneer is an outstanding device. The Cooper & Hunter model is equally efficient.