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If you're not able to get that phone tested outside at the box, take the "old phone" you used outside and plug it in inside the house and try it. If it rings, that again points to the phone in question having a bad ringer. I haven't stayed up to speed on this area, but I don't think it'd make a difference if the red & green wires were reversed. I know it used to if you had Touch-Tone service...reversing the wires would disable Touch-Tone service, although you'd still be able to call out and receive calls.
Good luck - I hope this is of some help!
Jim D/Heathsville, VA
1. Unplug all but one phone - does that one phone ring?
2. It could be one of the phones has a short for the ringer that is shorting out all ringers. Again unplug all but one phone.
3. The wire carrying the ringer voltage is shorted - could be a nail for a picture, a mouse chewed thru it, etc
Are you able to remove the outlet inside the home and see what color wires are going to it? I'm wondering if it's actually got the red & green wires going to it or not. If it has any color pair besides red and green, someone's done some repair work on the lines. If it has all four wires going to it, you might need to check and make sure they're going to the proper terminals on the outlet. Most of the newer ones have their terminals labeled R (red), G (green), Y (yellow) and B (black). One last thing to try might be to replace the line cord connecting the phone to the wall. One of my cats chewed on mine before and the line worked most of the time...if you moved the phone itself about 2 feet, though, it'd cut out entirely.
As I said before, I'm really a bit rusty at this stuff...I haven't had to troubleshoot a major phone problem in over 15 years. I've run my own wiring and stuff but matching all the wire colors normally works.
Someone else mentioned the "numbers" and having too many devices on the lines. As FYI, it's known as the Ringer Equivalence Number, or REN. Each phone, answering machine, Caller ID box, modem, etc., should have a REN indicated on it somewhere. The old standard (which may still be in effect) was the REN's of all the devices on the phone lines couldn't exceed 5.0 - if it did, your phone service quality would suffer.
I hope some of this may help you, or help someone else suggest some more troubleshooting steps for you to try. Good luck!
Jim D/Heathsville, VA